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Rug Terms – 2020



Many property owners or budding designers who’re new to the world of Oriental rugs and vintage carpets may to find themselves as a rule jogging into unfamiliar territory in terms of terminology. There is a number of phrases distinct to rugs and – more frequently, Oriental rugs – which are valuable to know whether or not you are an interior fashion designer, house owner, exchange reliable or rug enthusiast. We continuously strive to converse in plain, handy-to-appreciate English, however, if you happen to ever do not realize anything we say or write, please tell us!


Abrash: version and striation of colors for the period of the rug. Abrash refers back to the hue or color alternate located on many older rugs, mostly those woven by using nomadic tribes. Abrash is also an indication of average substances and dyeing practices.

Achaemenian: A Persian dynasty that dominated the Persian Empire’s (sixth-4th BC). The historian declares there used to carpet within the foremost palace made of wool and gold wire.

Add Fringes: Weave new fringes onto the rug.

Afshar: A Turkic talking nomadic and settled people residing regularly in southern Iran. The Afshar make most often small rugs and saddlebags, animal trappings. Tones of deep blue, purple, gold and ivory are most typically encountered in Afshar rugs. The Afshar nomads loom are main discovered residing in villages round KERMAN (KIRMAN) in southeastern IRAN. Probably the most famous individual on this tribe used to be NADER SHAH (King Nader), the founder of the Afshar dynasty, ruled from 1736 – 1747 A.D.

Allover Design: a continuous design for the period of the rug and not using a center medallion.

Aniline Dye: a synthetic dye learned in 1856 with the aid of William Perkins. The time period is now used to describe any artificial dyes utilized in Oriental or Navajo rugs. It was banned in Persia in the early 1900s because the dyes weren’t colorfast.

Antique finish: A contemporary washing process that tones or antiques the rug.

Vintage Wash: A chemical or typical process that tones down colors and to simulate getting older on new rugs or produce softer tones in antique and vintage rugs.

Arabesque: An ornate curving design of intertwined floral and vine figures typically seen in problematic workshop rugs such as these from Isphahan, Tabriz, Nain and Qum.

Ardabil: the city of Ardabil (Ardebil) is located at a distance of 639 kilometers from Tehran. Ardabil can be well recognized for quite often essentially the most famous carpet on this planet, this rug was approximately made around 1539. The usual Ardabil rug was got by using the Victoria Albert’s museum in 1893 for a cut-price $4000 (an outrageous cost for this period). The cartouche tells us that it was made by means of the order of the Persian King Shah Tahmasp by way of a weaver named Masoud al Kashani.

Artwork Silk: artificial silk, quite often made with mercerized cotton. Also known as artificial silk, it’s regularly mercerized cotton, rayon or polyester that seems to be silk.

Asymmetrical Knot: “Persian” of “Senneh” knot. A pile knotting procedure where only one or the two warps is absolutely encircled. Traditionally utilized in northwestern, western, southwestern and some part of northeastern Iran (quochan). Uneven knots may be open to the left or correct.

Aubusson: great rugs and carpets woven in France from the 15th to nineteenth Centuries. French design often with a medallion and pastel colours. It is usually a time period used to describe today’s rugs that use identical designs and colours.

Azerbaijan:Azerbaijan comprises of three provinces: Ardebil, Western Azerbaijan, and eastern Azerbaijan. The predominant cities are Tabriz, Ardebil, Orumyeh, Ahar, Khoy.


Bakhshaish (Bakhshayesh): A small village within the Iranian Azerbaijan which is placed southwest of Heriz. The discipline is usually recognized for its late 19th century (woven 1780-1900) carpet creation which includes enormous room dimension rugs with either the Herati or vital medallion patterns. Rugs most of the time resemble antique Heriz in design and technique.

Bakhtiari: The Bachtiari confederation is a significant and robust staff, masking a lot of relevant and southwestern Iran. Small rugs, saddlebags and trappings are woven by means of nomadic Bachtiaris, even as huge carpets are woven by the settled tribe’s individuals. The most fashioned sample is the backyard design which includes repeated squares or diamonds, each and every of which encloses a tree or floral motif. The name interprets roughly as “the lucky ones”. Different designed rugs include these with a big daring imperative medallion, or others with long vertical stripes filled with small botehs.

Baluch: A giant workforce of nomadic tribe’s persons dwelling in japanese Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan who weave many forms of small rugs, tent furnishings and animal trappings. They favor deep tones of blue, darkish brown, dark red and touches of common ivory. They’re simple, but sturdily made, utterly of wool, generally with ends and edges bolstered by the use of goat hair. Most rugs are small, double wefted, asymmetrical and tribal in personality. Designs are most often of tree of lifestyles, prayer rugs and in all places patterns of various guls and botehs.

Bergama: Bergama is somewhat town in northwest a part of Turkey, around eighty villages which can be contain weaving Bergama rugs. Bergama rugs have been woven as wool on wool material blend while wefts are all red. Bergama commonly are small and majority are square form. Bergama are loosely woven and have thick pile. These woven in Canakkale (historic metropolis often called Troy, town of Heroes) are fairly higher.

Bidjar (Bijar): An primary middle of rug creation in northwest Iran which is inhabited by using a Kurdish population. Vintage rugs which have been woven on wool foundation had three wefts between every row of knots. This made the rugs highly heavy, stiff and close to unattainable to fold. Ultra-modern rugs are typically double wefted and are woven on a cotton foundation. For a lot of a long time, the Bidjar has been called the “forged-iron rug of the East”. The construction of easy peasants in Kurdistan, northwestern Iran (Persia), Bidjar rugs are intently and heavily woven with a firm, dense nap. A “double-wefted” construction is fashioned, where the weaver in her knotting pulls alternate warps into line in the back of the neighboring ones, so the knots are carefully stacked collectively at an attitude instead than lying loosely facet through part. This kind of weaving, mixed with first-rate, lanolin-wealthy wool, creates a rug of almost fantastic durability.

Bokhara: The capitol of Uzbekistan and the typical trading middle for Turkmen tribal carpets. The sample most related to these rugs is that of rows of repeated geometric motifs, or Guls, woven on a red historical past.

Border: A design that surrounds the discipline in an Oriental rug. The band or stripe, or crew of bands or stripes across the fringe of the rug that types a body to enclose the relevant subject.

Boteh: The boteh is a symbol that has been used to decorate textiles in Iran at considering that the Sassanid Dynasty (200–650 ad). As a motif it has many interpretations. In some circumstances it’s described as a seed symbolizing lifestyles and renewal, customarily enclosing a mature plant inside it, as if to suggest that the entire at all times exists inside the phase.

Brocade: Weft glide weave used so as to add design and embellishment. Ordinarily seen on the Kilim bands on the ends of oriental rugs.


Cartouche: An oval shaped decorative design aspect. The cartouche is also strong coloured, or it’ll incorporate an inscription, a date, or one more design.

Caucasian: Rugs had been customarily woven in Azerbaijan, which is a part of the Caucasus neighborhood in Southern Russia.

Chemical Dyes:contemporary synthetic dyes used in rugs woven after 1935.

Chemical Wash: A approach where a sheen in imparted to the pile of a carpet. This is produced not handiest by way of the motion of the chemical substances on the colors within the wool, but additionally by using the chemical’s motion in putting off brief, staple fibers that have a tendency to absorb mild.

Chinoiserie: A French time period, signifying “Chinesery” or “chinese language-esque”, refers to a habitual theme in European artistic patterns on account that the seventeenth century, which mirror chinese language inventive influences. It’s a fusion of Asian motifs and European sophistication created by designers and craftsmen within the West. Considering the fact that they knew little of Asian cultures because of confined exposure, early chinoiserie is characterized by the use of imagery of a China that could simplest be imagined with pagodas, dragons, fantastic birds, monkeys and figures in distinguished costumes. Chinoiserie is a fun combo of truth and fiction of what gave the impression tremendously distinctive to the humans of Europe. This new whimsical kind was once popularized when the French court docket of Louis XV discovered the chinoiserie integrated superbly with Rococo architectural elements. It unfold for the duration of Europe and was once quickly observed in the interiors and gardens of the royal palaces.

Chrome dyes: today’s synthetic dyes that use potassium bichromate to create a bond between the dye stuff and the fiber.

Combing: procedure for making ready wool’s in the identical course, earlier than they are spun.

Curvilinear: which include or bounded by means of curved strains. Forming or moving in a curved line.


Dhurrie: A flat-woven carpet made in India utilizing the warp-sharing, Kilim system.

Double prayer rug: A rug with an arch at both ends of the subject. See mihrab, prayer rug.

Dozar: A Persian title used to explain roughly a 4.6 x 6.6 dimension carpet.

Dry rot: After many years the rug turns into dry and brittle, or beverages or moisture on a rug for an improved time can rationale the rug to emerge as dry rot. Dry rot most commonly occurs among antique rugs with cotton foundations. The airborne microscopic fungus will feeds on cellulose fibers. Cracking sounds or the breaking of a rug’s foundation is a result of dry rot.


japanese Turkestan: An area of western China within the southwestern a part of Xinjiang province. Rugs from this area are repeatedly referred to as Samarkand. Original sizes are 4×8 or 4×9 and preferred designs incorporate three medallions, pots with plant life and thirdly everywhere geometric elements for the period of the discipline.

Embossed: A process used in finishing carpets in which feathered incisions are made within the pile where one of a kind colors meet. Most of the time accomplished in some chinese language and Tibet rugs.


Farahan: An field north of the town of Arak in western Iran. The region is known for finely knotted late 19th century rugs with designs akin to Herati, Mina Khani or Gol Hinnai. Most rugs have cotton basis with wefts dyed in both blue or pink. Green colour is normally used. The areas of Fereghan and Seraband produce finely knotted pieces, similar each in type and nice to weavings from Senneh. They most often have a good allover subject pattern of tiny floral motifs, such as the Herati design. Early examples of Fereghan carpets, woven within the early and mid-nineteenth century are characterised through a distinctive greenish-yellow color and other enormously vivid colors.

Fath Ali Shah: (1797 – 1834) Qajar King; founder of the Qajar dynasty. Most of his reign used to be spent in interior and external war. He managed to preserve himself against different claimants to the throne but was once no longer so fortunate in his wars with Russia.

Field: the biggest area of a carpet; the relevant element that’s enclosed via the borders.

Flat weave: Flat weave is a technique of weaving that no knots are used to weave a fabric. The warp strands are used as the basis and the weft stands are used as both part of the foundation and in developing the patterns. The weft strands are conveniently passed (woven) through the warp strands. Flat weave used for Kilims, soumak, Dhurrie and Jajim. Truly it’s a textile with no pile. Groundwork: The warp and weft is the foundation/foundation of a rug.

Fringe: The continuation of the warp threads at every end of the carpet. Oftentimes knotted or plaited. Their basic role is to keep the rug collectively and preserve the wefts from unraveling.


Gabbeh: Thick, long-piled rugs produced by means of the tribes of Fars at first for his or her possess use and no longer for the industrial market. The phrase Gabbeh manner unclipped. Gabbeh are probably woven on horizontal looms. Backyard Design: A design wherein the field of the rug is divided into squares or rectangles that contain plants and animals, or outside scenes.

Ghiordes: See Turkish knot. A city in western Turkey where many small (regularly 3x5ft) prayer rugs have been woven. Knot densities are between 100 – 200 per rectangular inch. Typical designs depict small geometric and pointed mihrab surrounded by means of three or extra borders.

Gul: which means flower in Farsi. The gul (commonly gol or göl) is a design aspect which include octagonal or angular form used in Turkmen designs. It is regularly located in a repeating, all-over sample in the most important area of Turkmen rugs, bags and other weavings. The term “gul” is unclear of beginning. It will come from the Persian phrase for flower, or the Turkish phrases for rose, or roundel, or even lake. At one time, each exceptional gul represented a different tribal coat of fingers. It may be discovered ordinarily in Bohkara rugs.


Haji Jalili: Haji Jalili is well known master weaver all world wide exceptionally amongst excessive-finish vintage rug collectors. He made one of the vital finest rugs in 19th century (1800-1890) in Tabriz. He used to be in the beginning was from town of Marand (40 miles northwest of Tabriz).

Hali (qali): A Turkish phrase that implies “carpet”.

Hamadan (Hamedan): Hamedan is without doubt one of the oldest cities now not handiest in Iran however regularly in the world. The carpets which are made in Hamedan most likely have a geometric patterns. The Hamedan village rugs have an main characteristic that is all have a single-wefted medallion.

Herati: the most customary repeating pattern in Persian rugs. Formed through a rosette surrounded by using a diamond with small palmettes at its points and curving, tapered, serrated leaves that resemble fish alongside its sides. The Herati motif is greatly used in Iran and it’s believed to symbolize the small fishes come up just beneath the outside of the water to swim within the full moon’s reflection.

Hereke: Hereke in western Turkey has been a center for satisfactory weaving seeing that the days of the Ottoman Empire. The best modern-day Turkish rugs are nonetheless made in Hereke, as they have been a century in the past. Wool, silk, and metallic threads are all used. Although Hereke is in Turkey they use the Persian Senna knot in rugs made there.

Heriz: a geometrical medallion rugs woven in a couple of small village of Heriz. The rugs of Heriz are big, boldly designed and firmly woven. The oversize geometric medallions had been once referred to as “guard patterns” and they are mostly crisply delineated in opposition to a wealthy pink or a depressing blue area, with a generous use of ivory. Significant-scale “turtle-design” borders are normal. Industrial carpets bearing the Heriz design are woven in each rug-producing county in the world.

Hooked rug: A rug made with the aid of making use of a hooking gadget (either a hand-operated one or computer one) to push and loop yarn through a canvas. That is both left looped (making a “loop hook” or “latch hook” rug) or sheared to create an open pile.


Ilkhan Dynasty: Halagu consequently founded in Iran the Il-Khanid dynasty (1265- 1335). The Ilkhanids: Il-khan (Subordinate of the Khan) used to be the title assumed by using Hülegü (1256-sixty five), after he became the Mongol ruler of Iran and Khorasan (Northeast Province where in these days Mashad is located). The Ilkhanids eventually converted to Islam and adopted the Iranian culture. It used to be from that interval that the fabric culture of Iran flourished after the severe blow prompted through the Mongol invasion.

Indigo: special blue shaded dyes got from the leaves of the indigo plant.


Joshagan: A town in north important Iran, thirty miles southwest of Kashan. This weaving core is typically known for the design of an all over the place lozenge pattern – every along with a geometrical floral motif. Rugs are woven on cotton with a knot count of one hundred-200 knots per rectangular inch.

Jufti: Jufti is a layout knots formation in a rug that a knot is tied over 4 strands of warp as opposed to the normal two strands. Jufti knots or routinely called FALSE knots can also be Persian or Turkish form knots.

Jute: A fiber from a plant which is customarily used in the manufacture of burlap. Jute is a high-quality natural fiber and may be very versatile, adaptable yarn which weaves well, appears and feels excellent and comes in typical tones.


Kashmir: A rug-weaving district in the western Himalayas. The name has also been incorrectly used to explain the Soumak weaving method.

Kazak (Kazakh, Kazak, Kasak, Gazakh):Qazax(KAZAK) is a city of about twenty thousand folks in Northwest Azerbaijan. The humans of this area are Azeri Turks, Armenians, Albanians, and northern Caucasian. There are also Greeks, Russians, and Georgians, in the area but they do not appear to have made a large number of rugs. This isn’t to claim nevertheless that Kazaks wove the rugs that we name Kazak. The rugs we see are usually publish 1830 when lots of the weavers of Kazak rugs were Armenians. Nonetheless the designs they drew upon in lots of circumstances had been from the Kazaks who had lived in that subject prior to the Russian seize of Erevan.

Kilim: A flat rug with out a pile.

Knot: A knot is shaped when wool, cotton or silk yarn is looped across the warp threads. There are exclusive techniques for knotting and every knot sort has a name, for example there is a Turkish/Ghiordes knot & a Persian/Sennah knot.

Knots per rectangular inch: number of knots per square inch charges the knot nice.

Kork Wool: The very best satisfactory wool acquired from the shoulder and flanks from shearing lambs.

Kurds: Kurds are (a non-Arab) minority populace that inhabits the neighborhood known as Kurdistan, an large plateau and mountain subject in Southwest Asia (c.Seventy four,000 sq mi/191,660 sq km), including components of east Turkey, northeast Iraq, and west and northwest Iran and small workforce in Ghuochan (northwest Iran-Khorasan province) and smaller sections of northeast Syria and Armenia. The neighborhood lies astride the Zagros Mts. (Iran) and the jap extension of the Taurus Mts. (Turkey) and extends within the south throughout the Mesopotamian simple and includes the higher reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers populace distribution among the Kurds.


Line: A unit for measuring the exceptional of a rug, centered on the quantity or pairs of warp threads in a given subject of the carpet, on the whole one linear foot. The time period “line” can be used to describe a border stripe that includes a single row of knots.

Logwood: Logwood was native to tropical wooded area of important the united states and West Indies. Later and presented into different tropical areas on the planet. Logwood crops are small and filled with thorns. The brown-pink heartwood is the supply of the dye bipinnate leaves and racemes of small shiny yellow plants and yielding a hard brown or brownish-red heartwood used in making ready a black dye. It is nonetheless used more than every other typical dyes.

Loom: The body on which warps are connected and saved rigid in the course of the weaving of a rug.

Lozenge: A diamond formed parallelogram or rhombus.

Luster: The sheen that is given to the surface of a carpet as a result of chemical washing.


Madder: A powder extracted from the basis of a Rubia plant used to make pink dye.

Mashad (Mashhad): Mashad is located 909 kilometer far from Tehran in Northeastern Iran. This is city keep in mind through Shi’ite (Shiite) as a result of the shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH), the eighth Imam of the Shi’ite (Shiite) Mashad was once a small location by way of the name of Sanabad in the neighborhood of the old metropolis of Tus. The city of Mashad and its suburbs have a population of greater than two million humans. The town’s climatic condition is assorted with very cold winters, mainly mild summers and fine springs and autumns.

Medallion: big design or series of massive designs located within the core in some oriental rugs.

Mehrab: representation of the situation in a mosque, where the prayer leader stands. Ornamented with pillars, chandeliers & floral Persian rug patterns.

Mihrab: natural design of a prayer rug derived from the niche or chamber in a mosque.

Mina Khani: Mina Khani is beautiful design. In this design subject is included with daisies related at the side of traces that form diamonds or circles in an all-over layout. Blue history colour may be very normal in this design primarily for rug made in Varamin. That you may additionally find Mina Khani design in rugs from Bijar, Baluch, Farahan and surrounding villages.


Nap: Face of the rug the place the knot ends are reduce, usually made of wool or silk.

Usual Dyes: See vegetable dyes.

Navajo: Navajo rugs are textiles produced through Navajo humans of the 4 Corners area of the U.S., inclusive of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. Navajo textiles are a flat tapestry-woven fabric similar to eastern Europe and Western Asia Kilims, but making use of a different weave manner and an upright loom with no relocating materials. Navajo carpets have robust geometric patterns and their coloration was once by and large ordinary brown, white and indigo prior to the mid-nineteenth century. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many now not due to the fact that they’re beautiful textiles, but in view that they reflect the social and economic historical past of Navajo individuals. The Navajo carpets are real Native American folk art.


Open field:a fantastic-coloured ground, with or with no simple medallion and nook designs. An open area is the reverse of a included area.

Oushak: Oushaks are Turkish carpets that use a targeted family of designs from the city of Uşak, Turkey, one of the larger towns in Western Anatolia. Town Uşak has been a fundamental middle of rug creation relationship again to the early days of the Ottoman Empire and still remains trendy today. Prior to now, Oushak carpets have been categorized as ‘Anatolian Rugs,’ because of this ‘land of the rising solar.’

Oushak carpets are one of the crucial finest Oriental Rugs, a lot so that many artistic endeavors from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have been attributed to Oushak. The general medallion and superstar carpets originated from the Oushak rug. The warm subdued palette contains dyes reminiscent of cinnamon, saffron, terracotta hues, gold, blues, greens, teal, ivory and grays. Oushaks are recognized for their grand scale designs and soft tones that are stronger with the aid of their silky, luminous wool. The late nineteenth century, floral patterns of Persian culture and room dimension were incorporated into Oushak rugs with their overall geometric and angular design scheme. Paramount to the rug weaving approaches was once the use of higher knots and an all-wool foundation.

Oxidizes: With excess sunlight publicity rug colours can change to a brown or black colour.


Painted rug: A rug which has been dyed on the outside after the weaving has been accomplished. This approach, ordinarily located in rugs from Arak (Sarouk, Lilihan), was supposed to intensify specific colors which might now not be produced in deep ample colorings in the fashioned pile yarns. The observe of painting rugs is far less common today than it once was.

Palmette: A design element composed of a move portion of giant, leafy, fan-shaped flowers. Generally multicolored.

Parthian Empire (Parthian Dynasty): The Parthian Empire is a interesting interval of Persian historical past intently related to Greece and Rome. Ruling from 247 B.C. To A.D. 228 in old Persia (Iran), the Parthians defeated Alexander the excellent’s successors, the Seleucids, conquered most of the middle East and southwest Asia, controlled the Silk avenue and constructed Parthia into an eastern superpower. The Parthian empire revived the greatness of the Achaemenid Empire and counterbalanced Rome’s hegemony within the West. Parthia at one time occupied areas now in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaidzhan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel.

Patina: the skin appearance of a rug in most cases mellows with age or use.

Persian knot: A knotting technique where one end of the yarn in drawn up between two adjacent warp threads and the opposite finish is drawn up on the external of the pair. Also called a symmetrical knot, or a Senneh knot.

Pile: the outside of a carpet, shaped by using the cut ends of the knots which can be tied onto groundwork.

Pomegranate Plant: The mythology of old Greece viewed this fruit as the logo of existence and rebirth in the abduction story of Persephone by way of Hades, the god of the underworld. The pomegranate fruit is believed to have originated in Iran and Afghanistan. The fruit used to be used as a holy image and respected in Zoroastrian worshipping ceremonies and rituals. The pomegranate symbolized the soul’s immortality and the perfection of nature for Zoroastrians. Then it grew to be a port of the Iranian mythology which tells that Esfandiyar grew to become an invincible hero after he ate the pomegranate. The pomegranate plant is ageless in the course of the year, enabling the human mind to attribute to it the immortality of the soul. In time, the numerous seeds in a single fruit have come to face for prosperity. The recent or dried epidermis of the fruit is also used for dyeing and if used with an alum mordant, a yellow-brownish coloration will result. If an iron mordant is used, a brownish-black coloration will outcome. In Oriental carpets and Kilims, the pomegranate is an emblem of fertility and abundance in view that of its many seeds.

Poshti: A Turkish term used for a mat or rug measuring roughly three through 2 toes.

Prayer rug: A small rug providing a prayer area of interest (mihrab) within the field design. Prompted by using the architectural varieties discovered in a mosque.

Pushti: Persian time period for a scatter rug, mostly 2 x three.


Qajar Dynasty: Agha Mohammad Khan (1794 – 1797) Qajar were Turkmen tribe that held ancestral lands in reward-day Azerbaijan, which then used to be part of Iran. In 1779, following the demise of Mohammad Karim Khan Zand, the Zand Dynasty ruler of southern Iran, Agha Mohammad Khan, a chief of the Qajar tribe, got down to reunify Iran. Their Dynasty had began in 1794 and ended 1925.


Ram’s Horn: The ram’s horn represents manhood, male fertility, strength and bravado. A weaver incorporating this kind of image into her carpet would desire for all these characteristics in her future husband. Re-fringe: restore fringe of rug utilizing the selvage or a part of the rug.

Rectilinear: relocating in, together with, bounded by means of, or characterised via a straight line or lines: following a rectilinear direction; rectilinear patterns in Oriental rugs.

Repeated pattern: Reference Allover Design.

Rhubarb: Rhubarb is a plant from the species of Rheum, growing in the wild within the mountains of the Western and North-western provinces of Iran, Turkey and China and within the adjoining Tibetan territory. Oxalic acid (from rhubarb leaves) creates yellow to copper-red colours.

Rosette: A design aspect composed of the symmetrical head-on view of a flower. Most often circular, with radiating petals. Rosette is a circular arrangement of motif of motifs radiating out from the core and suggesting the petals of a rose. Determined on the area, predominant or minor borders of carpets in manifold naturalistic and geometric types.

Runner: a very slim rug. The size generally exceeds the width. The ratio of the length vs. Width is commonly 5 to 1 or three to 1 nevertheless there are lengthy runner as long as 18 to 1.


Safavid Dynasty: The Safavid (1499-1722) were descended from Sheikh Safi advert Din (1253 – 1334) of Ardabil, head of the Sufi order of Safaviyeh (Safawiyah), but about 1399 exchanged their Sunnite affiliation for Shi’ism. The Safavid were established Shiite Islam as a state religion of Iran, which became a important element in the emergence of unified countrywide cognizance’ among the more than a few ethnic and linguistic elements of the nation.

Saffron: The Greeks and Romans made a royal dye color with saffron and wealthy Romans perfumed their baths and homes with it. Within the 14th-18th centuries, saffron was used as a treatment and spice in Europe. Dyeing is the oldest use of saffron. The yellow stigmata impart a deep yellow to materials. About 4000 blooms are required to produce one ounce of dye, so saffron has continually been associated with wealth.

Sasanian Dynasty: The Sasanians defeated the Parthians in 224 and centered the Sasanian Empire. Sasanian Dynasty situated in ad 224 through Ardeshir I, and destroyed by using the Arab invasions of the 630s. The capital was at Ctesiphon. The Sasanians made Zoroastrians the legit state religion. Underneath the Sasanians, Persia reached the peak of its old glory, rivaling that of Rome; they revived Achemenid traditions and made Zoroastrianism their state faith.

Savonnerie: A hand-knotted, pastel-coloured carpet made in France that is used as a model for many present day Indian and Persian rugs. The design points a floral medallion set on an open subject, with broken borders.

Selvedge: The area between the brink of a rug and the perimeter. The aspect edges of a rug which can be formed by using the steady weft threads. The selvedges are regularly wrapped in a separate process after the weaving is completed, both through overcasting or buttonholing. The selvedge is the identical material used to kind the warp and weft. Part be aware: the top and backside edges of the rug form the fringe.

Senneh Knot: See Persian knot

Soumak: A flat-woven or rug with out pile where the sample-forming yarns go over either two or four warps and return beneath one or two warps, unlike the Kilim process, which makes use of a basket weave procedure. This technique produces a herringbone effect and is sometimes called weft wrapping. Looks similar to embroidery work.

Serapi: it is difficult to categorize and define a Serapi rug. They have been made for the period of 1800 -1920 in the village of Heriz. On the whole, nineteenth century Serapi rugs have dramatic expanse of rich brick-pink framed by clear blues and creamy whites. Abrash, the sophisticated changes of colour, intensify its simplistic great thing about Serapi rugs. Serapi carpets are quality recognized for his or her large, daring geometric patterns.

Symmetrical knot: See Turkish knot.

Symmetry: A predominant organizing principle in nature and in culture. The evaluation of symmetry enables for understanding the group of a pattern, and presents a method for settling on each invariance and change.


Tabriz: A city in northwestern Iran which has a most important weaving tradition relationship to the 15th century. It was presently that weavers from Tabriz offered the curvilinear designs to the courts at Istanbul. After a decline of some hundred years, Tabriz started out re-commencing its position in the mid-19th century because the market core for the export of Persian rugs to the west. Tabriz weavers have a status of copying designs from different areas of Iran and as a consequence the best way to set up the real beginning of a Tabriz is by means of analyzing the rug’s structure. Tabriz rugs are double wefted, Turkish knot is dominant, warps and wefts are of cotton and are often undyed (now and then nevertheless, wefts could also be either pale blue or mild grey).

Tannin: A brown pigment located in leaves and other components of crops. It explanations the brown colour of leaves in spite of everything other colors have disappeared. It is gift during the developing season however is masked by using the chlorophylls (greens), xanthophylls and carotenes (yellows and oranges), and anthocyanin (reds and purples). Tannin options are acid and have an astringent style. O.K.Bark was an primary source of Tannin.

Tekke: A big Turkoman tribe currently inhabiting the northeastern part of Iran and the field round Herat in Afghanistan. Tekke tribes are the main producer of Bokhara rugs. These rugs traditionally come in veggies, reds, whites, and browns. Asymmetrical knots are used on a double wefted wool foundation. Warps are often ivory and the wefts are brown. Knot counts are excessive. The Tekke gul is an indented octagon.

Tree of existence: A design offering a significant tree that divides the field of the rug in half. The tree of existence is a symbol normal to many monotheistic religions. Resonating the story of the backyard of Eden, it reminds us of man’s aspiration to become divine—its fruit is believed to deliver immortality, and accordingly it’s forbidden. Mankind, unable to eat this fruit, ought to situation all hope in lifestyles after demise. Thus the tree of lifestyles turns into a logo of the afterlife, of immortality, and of hope. In carpet design, the tree of life can show up in figurative type, but also in additional stylized interpretations.

Turkish knot: A knotting procedure in which the pile yarn is looped around two adjacent warp threads and then brought up between them. Often known as a Ghiordes knot.

Turkoman: A customary identify that refers back to the geometric, repeating designs that had been initially woven by way of nomadic tribes in central Asia.

Tufting: A method I which the pattern-forming pile yarns are inserted into the foundation of the rug with using a handheld desktop.


Ushak: Ushak is a city of west valuable Turkey with a subculture of rug production. It commenced as early because the fifteenth century. It is most famous for its 16th century superstar, medallion and prayer rug designs. At the finish of the nineteenth century, as a result of the demand for big room dimension rugs in Europe and the U.S., a construction on a massive scale industrial foundation started taking location there. Rugs from the Ushak neighborhood have wool pile on wool groundwork and most are crudely made with low knot counts. Most Ushaks have the medallion design or the far and wide sample design. Excellent Ushaks with attractive designs and good colour combos are very sought after for their decorative purposes.


Vase Carpet: a bunch of sixteenth and 17th century Persian carpets decorated with flora springing from vases. Most are directional rugs and can be considered from one angle only.

Vegetable dyes: Dyes derived from bugs or from the earth, which includes madder root, indigo, milkweed, pomegranate, Osage, cutch and cochineal.


Warp: opening a part of a rug the place wool, cotton or silk strands are attached to a Loom vertically, following the length of a rug. The groundwork threads of a rug which might be strung from the top to the backside of a loom. In Persian and Oriental rugs, the knots are tied on the warp threads, which also form the fringes on the ends of the finished rug.

Warfare Rugs: Afghan battle Rugs had been woven in Afghanistan for the duration of the Russian occupation in the mid 1980’s. Subjects of these rugs most commonly are of weapons include tanks, fighter planes, helicopters, grenades and guns.

Weft: Wool, cotton or silk strands inserted horizontally over and below the warp forming the groundwork of the rug. The groundwork threads of a rug which might be strung across the width of a loom. These threads are handed by way of alternate warp threads after each row of knots is tied. They serve to relaxed the knots in situation and also kind a part of the sides (selvages) of the rug.

Wool foundation: A rug is began with a wool warp and weft.


Yastik: A 3ft x 1ft Turkish rug traditionally used as a pillow quilt or cushion duvet.

Yazd: A valuable Iranian metropolis weaving rugs of medallion designs much like Kerman and Sarouk rugs. Most important colours are blue, pink and ivory. Wefts may also be either wool or cotton and warps are of cotton only. The asymmetrical knot is used.


Zand Dynasty: Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (ca. 1705-1779) established the rule of the Zand dynasty in Persia (today Iran) in 1750.

Ziegler and Co.: Ziegler and Co. Used to be a German company based in Manchester (England) who was once actively concerned in each the Opium and Carpet trade. Ziegler hooked up looms in Sultanabad and helped the increase in carpets from Arak (Sultanabad) province. The company exported a tremendous quantity of rugs from Iran to Europe from the mid-19th century until the early twentieth century. Persian rugs had been designed in line with western tastes. Tabriz, Mahal and Sultanabad rugs had been produced beneath the guidance of the Ziegler Co. Are recognized in these days because the Ziegler Carpets.


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